Race and Ethnicity

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The Optional Protocol sets up a mechanism by which individuals can file complaints with the Human Rights Committee against states (which have ratified the optional protocol) for non-compliance with the provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Notably, the mechanism is available to all "individuals subject to the jurisdiction" of the State party rather than only citizens. It was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966.

UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education

Article 1 of this Convention defines discrimination in education to include acts or omissions that have the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing equality of treatment in education, in particular, (a) the effect of depriving any person or group of persons of access to education of any type or at any level; (b) of limiting any person or group of persons to education of an inferior standard; (c) subject to the provisions of article 2 of this Convention, of establishing or maintaining separate educational systems or institutions for persons or groups of persons; or (d) of inflicting on

European Commission. Equality and Non-Discrimination in an enlarged EU, Green Paper

This Green Paper on "Equality and non-discrimination in an enlarged EU", adopted by the European Commission on 26 May, outlines the steps that the EU has already taken to ban discrimination in employment and beyond. It identifies areas where further action is required to ensure that people across the enlarged EU can benefit from these new rights, as well as a range of practical measures that could support the efforts of national authorities, civil society and other stakeholders.