European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundemental Freedoms

Sunday, 1 November, 1998

Articles 1 - 18 cover substantive rights, including the right to life, the right not to be tortured and right to freedom of expression. In addition, there are also protocols to the Convention that guarantee other substantive rights, such as the right to property (Article 1 of Protocol 1), and prohibit the collective expulsion of aliens (Article 4 of Protocol 4). Article 14 of the Convention provides that no one shall be discriminated against in their enjoyment of the rights provided under the Convention. The list of grounds is not exhaustive and the European Court of Human Rights has read Article 14 to cover grounds of discrimination that are not expressly provided for in Article 14. The main drawback of Article 14 is that its protection extends only to those rights included in the Convention.

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